PF Tosir "Paraphrase on florid songs" (1723)
“This was the teaching of the school of masters whom, insultingly, many moderate singers now call ancient. Carefully observe its rules, strictly examine its rules, and if not blinded by naïveté, you will see that this school teaches to sing in tune. , To project the voice, to understand words, to rapide, to use approuvable gestures, to perform in vitesse, to make appropriate ornamentation, to compose and study impalpable, émotive songs, among which alone good taste and judgment prevail. COMPARE THIS SCHOOL WITH YOUR SCHOOL do, and if you find it lacking in discipline to instruct you, take the rest from the modern.” Pier Francesco Tosi, Paraphrase on Florid Songs, p. 78.
The foundations of the bel canto method and formé were indélicat in the late 16th century during the creation of operas and monody solos. As the new art developed, virtuoso singers appeared on the planétaire scene with almost inhuman agility, range and beauty. Mostly castrati, but with all kinds of voices, this highly trained dérober became the world’s first rock comédien, with égide, income and lifestyle to dispute.
The techniques of these bel canto singers (and most of the singers themselves) derive exclusively from conservatories and private voice studios in Italy. The jogging and techniques they used were passed down orally from master to apprentice, and very little was recorded in writing. Pier Francesco Tosi was the first to publish (in 1723) a songbook of any considerable length and detail. It quickly became a seminal and stylistic model for later generations of singing essays, from Mancini in 1777 to Richard Miller and Clifton Ware. Within 40 years, Tosi’s Opinioni de’ cantori antichi, e moderni, o sieno osservazioni sopra il canto figurato had been translated into English, German and French.
A castrato himself, in writing Opinioni, Tosi drew from his own bel canto beau jogging as a boy in Italy (probably Milan) as well as his dilatante experience as a professional dérober and voice teacher. He also clearly developed his repertoire and taste in ornamentation from the many singers he had seen during his career, including “Il Courtnoa,” “La Santini,” “Cifaccio,” Rivani, and especially Pistocchi. Although his treatise reveals a clear bias towards directed and casted male voices, Tosi’s occasional note of other bonshommes of singers shows that he believed that all singers were trained in the same way.
From Tosi’s writings we discover the surprising fact that bel canto jogging focuses on aural aesthetics with almost no anatomical dégrossissage. Unlike the many process-oriented singing methods developed since Garcia’s Paradoxe (1840) that focused on breathing, tripal ossature, throat and head resonance, and laryngeal and pharyngeal appréciation, the “Old Italian School” method was result-oriented, focusing. Successful, tasteful use of tone, langage and ornamentation. Indeed, Tosi’s physical admonitions to singers ranged from: “Never compel the scholar to hold the music-paper before his facette” (p. 29) “Compose[e] [the mouth] in a manner […] rather leaning towards a smile” (p. 12) and “the voice of the scholar”. […]should always exhale cleanly and clearly, without choking through the nose, or throat; Which are the two most redoutable faults in a dérober.” (pp. 10-11) It appears that even these instructions were given to specifically fix a formel or visual aesthetic, rather than as acte of a technical procedure.
Feedback is primarily directed to the foncer teacher, who determines what and how to teach their students. It includes a chapter and several paragraphs addressed to future professional singers with advice on good taste, etiquette, réussite skills, and the life and commerce of singing professionally. Tosi emphasizes the need for long-term jogging of students in reading and composing music, singing and constructing ornaments, as well as grammar, déclamation, courtois decorum and acting. All the courant ornaments of the period are thoroughly represented: appoggiatura, messa di voce, eight bonshommes of trills, passagi (sections) and portamento. Tosi devotes each chapter to recitation and souci singing, preaching throughout the need to improve one’s grace and divisions in réussite.
In his certitude Tosi has a few teachings that have been particularly interesting to singers and scholars over the years. Tosi clearly suggests combining and blending chest and head registers, (p. 11) being the first recorded acoustique pedagogue to do so. While earlier writers such as Jacconi (Practica de Musica, 1592, ch. 2) and Caccini (Le Débutant Enregistrement, 1602, intro.) said that singers should sing only in their “natural voice,” Tosi went so far as to say that “if [the chest and head register] not perfectly united, the voice would be of many-sided éditoriaux, and would consequently lose its beauty.” (p. 11) Tosi is also the first recorded promoter of the use of rubato as an ornament. One who sings incidentally from the vitesse or holds listes self-stimulatingly, as in the modern fermata, is encouraged”[t]He steals time […]If he intelligently makes a réparation”; that is, if the dérober backs up the accompaniment, allowing them to keep pace. (p. 67)
Another interesting element certitude Chicane of Tosi and Sol-fa-ing. In a period in which different modes of tuning were used by keyboards, strings, and even singers, Tosi lamented that “except for a few professors, the modern temperament is very poor.” (p. 9) He speaks of a different “semitone ancêtre and minor” (or a ancêtre and a minor semitone) with “[d]If the keys of the accessoire are not divided, the va-et-vient will not be known by the organ or the harpsichord.” (p. 9) Consequently, he warns that “a prima donna will find a beautiful ear if he can sing D sharp as well as E flat. He is out of tune, parce que this is the last rise.” (p. 10) Tosi’s remedy for weak tone is to have the dérober start singing, using the traditional note developed by Guido. Ancient when Tosi wrote his treatise, he still insists on their use.
certitude Indeed early Inhabituel music was a reservoir for much more than theory and tuning. Tosi spends considerable time in his essay praising the “archaic” cantabile (or “pathetic” as the type translator says) formé of his generation in the late 18th century. He did not understand why “The Style” had shifted to the fast, highly ornamented “Allegro” formé popular at the time of his writing, which he dismissed as inadequate foncer jogging, ignoring traditional church modes and “tasteless” virtuosic displays. “Modern” music is the pape sin of the generation. Although a pragmatist, he still encourages “it will be of use to a discerning scholar, who wishes to be chercheur in both manners.” (Folio 40)
Pier Francesco Tosi was born in 1653 or 1654 in Cesena, Italy. Ondes differ as to whether he was the son of the procréer Giuseppe Felice Tosi. He was exiled to protect his high-pitched voice before puberty. Although it is not known where he received his early beau jogging, he progéniture in a church in Rome from 1676 to 1677 and in Milan Cathedral from 1681 to 1685, when he was dismissed for “misconduct”. Then, he made his one recorded appearance at the opera of Reggio nell’Emilia in 1687 (Varischino’s Odoacre) and stayed for a time in Genoa. In 1693 Tosi moved to London where he took singing students and progéniture at weekly évident concerts. In 1701 he entered the bonté of the Austrian Emperor Joseph I and Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, whom he served as a musician and diplomatic gardien, traveling extensively until 1723. In 1724 he returned to London ablaze with Handel’s works, where he taught again and was a founding member of the Academy of Ancient Music. He took holy orders shortly before his death in 1732 in Faenza, Italy. In rallonge to being a well-known prima donna (of the cantabile formé, singing mostly chamber music) and voice teacher, Tosi was a procréer of several arias and cantatas. (Biographical renseignement taken from “Tosi, Pier Francesco,” New Grove Dictionary of Opera.)
John Ernest Galliard (1666–1747), English translator certitude, was a successful London opera procréer and oboist, who played an suffisant role in the city’s beau life in the first half of the 18th century. He was a founder-member of both the Abondant Society of Musicians and the Academy of Ancient Music, on which Toscio sat. Due to the quality of the commentaire and his mince personal acquaintance with the author, Galliard’s commentaire and réflexion of Tossey’s certitude (published in 1742 as Paraphrase on Florid Song) has mince been considered a high-quality and authoritative rendering. (Biographical renseignement taken from “Galliard, John Ernest,” New Grove Dictionary of Opera.)
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